Needle Cricothyrotomy

As an anesthesiologist and intensivist, the "can't intubate, can't ventilate" situation is one of my worst nightmares. Airway rescue procedures like needle cricothyrotomy are essential to know. This rescue technique can be utilized if...

Antithrombin III

Antithrombin III (AT) is a protease that disrupts coagulation by inactivating thrombin. Congenital AT deficiency can be a quantitative and/or qualitative issue. Fortunately, AT concentrates like Thrombate III (pooled from human plasma) can replenish...

Types Of Endoleaks

Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) offers many patients a minimally invasive option to address vascular pathologies like aortic aneurysm. By deploying a fabric-covered stent within the aneurysm, blood is rerouted through this conduit thereby excluding...

Subaortic Membrane

Here's a transesophageal echo (TEE) of a subaortic membrane (encircled in yellow) causing left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction. Also note the fluttering of the aortic valve (AoV) leaflets during systole, turbulent flow in...

Ogilvie’s Syndrome

Ogilvie's syndrome is an acute, paralytic ileus of the colon without mechanical obstruction associated with massive right colon dilation. Symptoms can include abdominal distension/pain, constipation, and in more severe situations, leukocytosis with fevers. In line...

Fungal Endocarditis

Fungal endocarditis (inflammation of the heart's inner lining) is most commonly caused by Candida species and is associated with a high mortality rate. Risk factors include long-term antibiotic therapy (especially with indwelling central lines), immunosuppression, prosthetic...

Gas Flowmeters

Variable area flowmeters consist of a tapered, vertically-oriented tube with the smallest diameter at the base and largest at the top. As a result, the cross-sectional area of the tube changes based on height....

Hyponatremia Correction For Hyperglycemia

Sodium is the primary cation (positive-charged ion) in the extracellular space. Therefore, dilutional hyponatremia can occur if free water is added to the extracellular space from fluid shifts and infusions. Let's look at this basic...

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