pulmonary

Alprostadil

Alprostadil (Prostaglandin E1, PGE1) is a medication used to treat erectile dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). PAH is a progressive condition in which the arteries that carry blood from the heart to the...

Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis

Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a diffuse lung disease caused by problems with: surfactant metabolism, alveolar macrophage function, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor, or an unknown etiology. These can lead to the deposition of surfactant...

Heliox

Heliox is a gas mixture consisting of, in this example, 21% oxygen and 79% helium (although other ratios exist). Remember that atmospheric air contains ~21% oxygen and ~78% nitrogen. Although helium and air share...

Anatomical Lungs Emoji

As a follow-up to my labeled anatomical heart emoji, I give you the lungs! Also from the Emoji 13.0 list.

Breathing Patterns

A patient’s breathing pattern can help guide response to therapies and diagnostics. Normal breathing is regular and comfortable at a rate of 12-20 breaths per minute (bpm). Tachypnea and bradypnea have rates above and below...

West’s Lung Zones

Alveoli that are well ventilated (V) should be associated with good pulmonary capillary blood perfusion (Q) to maximize gas exchange. This is the idea behind V/Q matching. Gravitational forces create heterogeneity perfusing dependent portions...

Percutaneous Tracheostomy

Percutaneous tracheostomy ("perc trach") is a procedure that is routinely performed at the bedside on patients who require prolonged mechanical ventilation or airway control due to an upper airway obstruction or for pulmonary hygiene....

Subcutaneous Emphysema

Subcutaneous emphysema occurs when air gets trapped within the subcutaneous regions of the face, neck, chest wall, abdomen, and even down to the thighs/legs. The characteristic physical exam finding of crepitus ("snap-crackle-pop") is caused...

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