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Positive End Expiratory Pressure (PEEP) and Cardiac Output

One of the cardiopulmonary challenges I constantly face as a cardiothoracic anesthesiologist and intensivist is balancing positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) with cardiac...


Albuterol (ProAirVentolin/Proventil) is most often used as a short-acting, inhaled therapy for bronchospasm. It works via β-2 agonism - adrenergic receptors that...

The ‘Q’ In “V/Q Mismatch”

You can't read about pulmonary physiology without encountering the topic of V/Q mismatch, otherwise known as ventilation-perfusion mismatch. In fact, of the...

Re-expansion Pulmonary Edema

Re-expansion pulmonary edema is a rare but relevant consideration after a large volume thoracentesis. It's a consequence of the rapid expansion of a previously...

Work Of Breathing – Pressure-Volume Curve Integration

From a physics standpoint, work (W) = force (F) x distance (d). Similarly, pressure (P) = force (F) / area (A) and...


I'm a double board certified adult cardiothoracic anesthesiologist and intensivist looking to improve medical education, diagnostics, and patient safety while promoting team-based, patient-centered care.