Pharmacology

Protamine

Protamine is an intravenous protein used to reverse the blood thinner heparin. This medication was initially derived from salmon sperm but is now synthesized with recombinant DNA technology. Heparin (negatively charged) forms an ionic...

Antithrombin III

Antithrombin III (AT) is a protease that disrupts coagulation by inactivating thrombin. Congenital AT deficiency can be a quantitative and/or qualitative issue. Fortunately, AT concentrates like Thrombate III (pooled from human plasma) can replenish...

Olanzapine

Olanzapine (Zyprexa) is a second-generation ("atypical") antipsychotic that can be administered as an oral disintegrating tablet (ODT) or intramuscular (IM) injection. Like most antipsychotics, olanzapine works by blocking postsynaptic dopamine (D2) and serotonin (5HT2)...

Gentamicin

Gentamicin is an intravenous, intramuscular, and topical aminoglycoside bactericidal antibiotic that works by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis. By binding the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, proteins are improperly translated leading to bacterial...

Promethazine

Promethazine (Phenergan) is an oral, intramuscular (IM), rectal, and intravenous (albeit with caution!) phenothiazine derivative that is both a first-generation antihistamine (H1 receptor antagonism) and a weak typical antipsychotic (D2 receptor antagonism). It also...

Loop Diuretic Threshold And Ceiling Doses

Loop diuretics like furosemide (Lasix) and bumetanide (Bumex) block the reabsorption of sodium, potassium, and chloride in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle. This interferes with concentrating the renal medulla, and...

Polymyxin B

Polymyxin B is a "last-line" antibiotic primarily used to treat hospital-acquired gram-negative infections that are resistant to essentially all other conventional antibiotics. As an intensivist, I've had to use polymyxin B for two very...

Surgicel

Surgicel is an oxidized cellulose hemostatic agent used to control bleeding. It creates a physical barrier to blood loss while promoting localized vasoconstriction and platelet aggregation within the matrix of fibers. Furthermore, due to...

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