Pneumoperitoneum

Pneumoperitoneum refers to free air within the peritoneal cavity most commonly caused by perforation of a hollow viscus from a procedure (e.g., endoscopy), trauma, cancer, bowel obstruction, inflammation, or ulceration. As this air accumulates...

Protamine

Protamine is an intravenous protein used to reverse the blood thinner heparin. This medication was initially derived from salmon sperm but is now synthesized with recombinant DNA technology. Heparin (negatively charged) forms an ionic...

Needle Cricothyrotomy

As an anesthesiologist and intensivist, the "can't intubate, can't ventilate" situation is one of my worst nightmares. Airway rescue procedures like needle cricothyrotomy are essential to know. This rescue technique can be utilized if...

Antithrombin III

Antithrombin III (AT) is a protease that disrupts coagulation by inactivating thrombin. Congenital AT deficiency can be a quantitative and/or qualitative issue. Fortunately, AT concentrates like Thrombate III (pooled from human plasma) can replenish...

Types Of Endoleaks

Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) offers many patients a minimally invasive option to address vascular pathologies like aortic aneurysm. By deploying a fabric-covered stent within the aneurysm, blood is rerouted through this conduit thereby excluding...

Subaortic Membrane

Here's a transesophageal echo (TEE) of a subaortic membrane (encircled in yellow) causing left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction. Also note the fluttering of the aortic valve (AoV) leaflets during systole, turbulent flow in...

Ogilvie’s Syndrome

Ogilvie's syndrome is an acute, paralytic ileus of the colon without mechanical obstruction associated with massive right colon dilation. Symptoms can include abdominal distension/pain, constipation, and in more severe situations, leukocytosis with fevers. In line...

Fungal Endocarditis

Fungal endocarditis (inflammation of the heart's inner lining) is most commonly caused by Candida species and is associated with a high mortality rate. Risk factors include long-term antibiotic therapy (especially with indwelling central lines), immunosuppression, prosthetic...

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