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Lactated Ringers And Normosol In Hyperkalemia

As an intensivist and anesthesiologist, I spend a considerable amount of time pondering the physiology and evidence for practices and questioning dogma...

Green Urine Discoloration

Urine color is often under-appreciated as one of many considerations in working up a patients clinical status (especially in the intensive care...


Mannitol is a carbohydrate often administered as a hypertonic solution that is freely filtered by the renal glomerulus and not reabsorbed. Therefore,...

Renal Replacement Therapy – Hemodialysis and Hemofiltration

The word "dialysis" evokes many clinical indications and contexts. In chronic end-stage renal disease (ESRD), patients typically have some form of long-term...


Furosemide (Lasix) is a loop diuretic that works on the Na/K/2Cl cotransporter in the thick ascending loop of Henle. It's a medication I routinely...


I'm a cardiothoracic anesthesiology fellow and double board certified intensivist and anesthesiologist at Harvard looking to improve medical education, diagnostics, and patient safety while promoting team-based, patient-centered care.