hemodynamics

Verapamil

Verapamil (Calan/Verelan) is an oral and intravenous non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker (CCB) which is more selective for L-type calcium channels on cardiac muscle than vascular smooth muscle. In comparison, dihydropyridine CCBs like nicardipine and...

Metoprolol

Metoprolol (Lopressor) is a selective beta-1 receptor blocker used primarily to decrease heart rate (chronotropy) and cardiac contractility (inotropy) in those with anginal chest pain, acute myocardial infarctions, supraventricular tachycardias, and even off-label for...

Nitroglycerin

Nitroglycerin (NTG) is short-acting venodilator (vasodilator at higher doses) which, like all nitrates, is converted to nitric oxide to exert its effects. In medicine, NTG is routinely used to improve the mismatch between cardiac...

Mannitol

Mannitol is a carbohydrate often administered as a hypertonic solution that is freely filtered by the renal glomerulus and not reabsorbed. Therefore, it serves as an osmotic diuretic that, if left unchecked, can lead...

Pacing Swan-Ganz Catheter

Throughout my training, I've placed countless pulmonary artery ("Swan-Ganz") catheters for cardiothoracic surgeries and in the ICU to help guide the diagnosis and response to therapy in mixed or undifferentiated shock. These PA catheters...

Epoprostenol

Epoprostenol (Veletri or Flolan) is an inhaled or intravenous prostanoid vasodilator which is most often used as a therapeutic option for pulmonary arterial hypertension (pHTN). When given intravenously, it dilates both the systemic and...

Hydralazine

Hydralazine (Apresoline) is an intravenous and oral antihypertensive that promotes the direct relaxation of arterioles through an unclear mechanism potentially involving calcium flux within the vascular smooth muscle. By acting primarily as a vasodilator...

Fluid Warmers

Hypothermia has a profound impact on the entire body - it compromises the immune system leading to a higher risk of post-operative wound infections, promotes coagulopathy, decreases drug metabolism and wound healing, delays emergence...

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