Double Aortic Arch

During embryogenesis, the aortic sac is connected to paired dorsal aortae via six symmetrical aortic (Ao) arches, which give rise to major vascular structures. For example, the right and left common carotid arteries originate...

Fundoscopic Examination

Fundoscopy examines the interior, back surface of the eye, including the retina, blood vessels, macula, and optic disc. Before learning pathology, one must first understand the "normal" anatomy of the retina. Let's use a...

Persistent Left Superior Vena Cava (SVC)

Persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) is a rare (~0.5% of the general population) venous anomaly when the left superior cardinal vein fails to degenerate. This can make entering the right heart from the...

Zones Of The Aorta

As a cardiothoracic anesthesiologist and intensivist, I care for many patients in the OR and ICU who have aortic aneurysms or dissections undergoing open/endovascular repair. It's important to localize the aortic pathology to determine...

Anatomical Lungs Emoji

As a follow-up to my labeled anatomical heart emoji, I give you the lungs! Also from the Emoji 13.0 list.

Anatomical Heart Emoji

The "anatomical heart" was approved with Unicode 13.0 in 2020 and added to Emoji 13.0 the same year. Its appearance varies based on the platform (Apple, Google, Samsung, Facebook, etc), but below, I've labeled...

Situs Inversus Totalis

Situs inversus totalis is a rare (0.01% of the population) condition where patients have a mirror-image reversal of their internal chest and abdominal organs. For example, the heart is in the right chest, the...

Anatomic Liver Segments

The Couinaud classification system divides the liver into eight functionally independent segments, each with a center consisting of a portal vein, hepatic artery branches, and bile duct drainage. The periphery of each segment is...

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