anatomy

Zones Of The Aorta

As a cardiothoracic anesthesiologist and intensivist, I care for many patients in the OR and ICU who have aortic aneurysms or dissections undergoing open/endovascular repair. It's important to localize the aortic pathology to determine...

Anatomical Lungs Emoji

As a follow-up to my labeled anatomical heart emoji, I give you the lungs! Also from the Emoji 13.0 list.

Anatomical Heart Emoji

The "anatomical heart" was approved with Unicode 13.0 in 2020 and added to Emoji 13.0 the same year. Its appearance varies based on the platform (Apple, Google, Samsung, Facebook, etc), but below, I've labeled...

Situs Inversus Totalis

Situs inversus totalis is a rare (0.01% of the population) condition where patients have a mirror-image reversal of their internal chest and abdominal organs. For example, the heart is in the right chest, the...

Anatomic Liver Segments

The Couinaud classification system divides the liver into eight, functionally independent segments each with a center consisting of portal vein and hepatic artery branches as well as bile duct drainage. The periphery of each...

The Pringles Mitral Valve

The mitral valve's complex geometry is usually described as a "saddle shape", but I definitely prefer the comparison to Pringles chips! Here's an illustration showing the relevant mitral anatomy. No Pringles were harmed in...

The Endothelial Glycocalyx

The glycocalyx is a surface layer of proteins lining the luminal (blood-containing) side of vascular endothelium. It plays an important role as a vascular barrier, provides structural support, facilitates cellular interactions, mitigates vasomotor tone,...

Bovine Aortic Arch

Over a dozen different aortic arch great vessel configurations have been described in humans. I’ve illustrated the two most common types in this diagram. The “normal” aortic arch gives rise to three “great vessels.”...

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