anatomy

The Endothelial Glycocalyx

The glycocalyx is a surface layer of proteins lining the luminal (blood-containing) side of vascular endothelium. It plays an important role as a vascular barrier, provides structural support, facilitates cellular interactions, mitigates vasomotor tone,...

Bovine Aortic Arch

Over a dozen different aortic arch great vessel configurations have been described in humans. I’ve illustrated the two most common types in this diagram. The “normal” aortic arch gives rise to three “great vessels.”...

The Heart’s Fibrous Skeleton

There’s a complex yet beautiful architecture within the heart's fibrous skeleton and valvular geometry. To become a proficient perioperative echocardiographer, one must understand these spatial relationships in three dimensions and the implications that specific...

Neuraxial Anesthetics And Anatomy

Understanding neuraxial anatomy is an essential part to successfully perform epidural and spinal (intrathecal) anesthetics. Here's a schematic outlining the layers we encounter when performing these procedures: A: skinB: subcutaneous tissueC: supraspinous ligamentD: interspinous ligamentE:...

Layers Of The Scalp

Do you know the mnemonic “SCALP” for the five layers of the scalp? The skin layer is relatively thick and contains hair follicles, sebaceous glands, and apocrine sweat glands.The connective tissue layer has a dense,...

Bronchopulmonary Segments

Anatomically, the trachea extends from the cricoid cartilage (level of C6/C7) to the carina (T4/T5) and is reinforced anteriorly by approximately 20 semicircular, cartilaginous rings. The trachea divides into the right and left mainstem...

Reading Chest X-Rays

Reading a chest x-ray (CXR) is an incredibly important aspect of acute care medicine and a skill that all healthcare providers should at least have some comfort in doing. The key for interpreting any radiographic...

Worth More Dead Than Alive

I was contacted by an associate at MedicalTranscription.net with regards to an image she and her team created about the black market for organs. Here's the incredibly eye-opening animated graphic:

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